|ca. 1600 BCE
from the Hyksos, nomadic Semites, who had founded a "Shepherd" dynasty
there. Horses are also introduced
Cretan civilization reaches the Greek Isles.
Hatshepsut, the first female Pharaoh, reigns in Egypt during the
Dynasty, when Egypt has the first well-developed example of state
A new strain
African blood comes to the Royal Egyptian line through Queen Mutemua
Mutemwiya), whose son, Amenhotep
III, built the great temple of Luxor and the colossi of Memnon.
people of Kenya develop a stone-bowl culture.
near present-day Tunis in North Africa.
Egypt during the XXIInd Dynasty.
begin in Greece and do much to maintain that sense of a common Greek
(pan-Hellenism) which transcends the narrow politics of the city states.
who began his career as King of Nubia,
ascends the throne of Egypt.
III conquers Babylonia and founds the new Assyrian Empire.
Israel buys off Tiglath-pileser III.
King Sargon II
the Assyrians with iron weapons for the first time and in 721 carries
the deportation of the "Lost Ten Tribes of Israel" that was ordered by Tiglath-pileser
Dynasty begins when a vast army of Ethiopians led by Shabaka
son of King Sargon II, leads his Assyrian army to the borders of Egypt.
In 701, Kush is relieved when a pestilence destroys this Assyrian army.
son, takes Thebes in Upper Egypt, overthrowing Tarhaka,
the last ruler of the XXVth Ethiopian Dynasty. Babylonia is suzerain
the Nile for the first time. All the Ethiopian Pharaohs, from Piankhi
Tandamane, are buried in pyramids at their ancestral home in Napata.
in Meroë. Iron is not used in Egypt until 650.
the freedom of Egypt and founds the XXVIth Dynasty. He is assisted
Assyria by Lydian troops sent by King Gyges.
or Istanbul) is built.
II of Egypt tries to link the Nile and the Red Sea with a canal. In
608, he defeats Josiah, King of Judah, at the Battle of Megiddo.
of Assyria, is captured by the Chaldean Babylonians and the Medes,
the Chaldean Empire.
Necho II is
to the Euphrates and overthrown by Nebuchadnezzar II, who attacks Egypt
The Temple of
Sun is constructed in Meroë.
is destroyed, and the Jews are exiled in Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar;
many of them, including the Prophet Jeremiah, flee to Egypt and settle
the vessels of the house of God, great and small, and the treasures of
the House of the Lord, and the treasures of the king, and of his
all these he brought to Babylon. And they burnt the House of God and
down the wall of Jerusalem, and burnt all the goodly vessels thereof,
them that had escaped from the sword carried he away to Babylon; where
they were servants to him and his sons until the reign of the kingdom
Persia" (II Chronicles, XXXVI, 18, 19, 20) in 539.
Cyrus II, the
succeeds Cyaxares, the Mede, and deposes Croesus, King of Lydia.
lives about this time. So also do Confucius and Lao Tse.
Cyrus II takes
founding the Persian Empire.
tyrant of Athens, dies.
of Persia leads an expedition against Ethiopia.
II's successor, conquers Egypt and is proclaimed Pharaoh.
Tragedian, is born.
Darius I, the
of Hystaspes, rules from the Hellespont (the Dardane]les) to the Indus.
He leads an expedition to Scythia, north of the Danube. Under his rule,
the canal from the Nile to the Red Sea, begun by Necho II in 610, is
dramatist, is born.
The Greeks and
battle at Marathon.
father of "history," is born.
beaten at Thermopylae and Salamis by the Greeks.
dramatist, is born.
The battles of
and Mycale complete the repulse of Persia.
the Carthaginian, sails along the African coast from Ceuta, i.e.,
Morocco, extending Carthaginian trade southward as far as present-day
and the Cameroon mountains.
son of Darius I and King of Persia, is murdered; his son, Artaxerses I,
recites his Histories in Athens.
War begins and lasts until 404.
statesman, dies. Herodotus dies in the same year.
poet of comedy, begins his career.
philosopher who studies in Egypt, is born; he lives until 347.
fleet and recruiting mercenaries in 415, Carthage invades Sicily,
a war that lasts 100 years.
The retreat of
"Ten Thousand Greeks" occurs after Cyrus the Younger's victory in
the development of medical sciences in Greece, some 21 centuries
an Egyptian architect, astrologer, sage and diety, distinguished
a practicing physician. . . .
world some of the greatest personalities in the history of mankind. In
this regard, Imhotep is singularly outstanding. In the ancient history
of Egypt, no individual left a deeper impression than the commoner
He was the world's first multi-genius. He was the real father of
In his book, Evolution
of Modern Medicine (London, 1921, p.10), Sir William Osler
to Imhotep as 'the first figure of a physician to stand out clearly
the mists of antiquity'" (John Henrik Clarke, "Africa: The Passing of
Golden Age," Tlle National Scene, IV:4, August-September,
of the Gauls, sacks Rome.
Plebian demands and builds the Temple of Concord.
is in command at the Battle of Chaeronea.
cross into Asia. Philip, Alexander's father, is murdered.
At the Battle
the Granicus, Clitus the Black saves Alexander the Great's life.
the Great conquers the Persian Empire which includes Egypt, ending
the XXXIst (Persian) Dynasty.
of Arbela, Darius III's generals revolt against his weakness.
Darius III is
the Magadha Kingdom in India.
The Romans are
beaten by the Samnites at the Battle of the Caudine Forks.
Seleucus, the first king of Syria.
Wall of China is begun. Started during the Ch'in dynasty, it is not
completed until 211 and winds across northern China for almost 1,864
from Kansu province to Hopeh province.
Soter, founder of the dynasty of Greek kings of Egypt in 320, dies.
Epirus (a country in N.W. ancient Greece), invades Italy.
The Romans are
by Pyrrhus at Heraclea, an ancient city in Italy.
At the Battle
Ausculum, Pyrrhus defeats the Romans again.
The Gauls raid
Minor and settle in Galatia.
Punic War the Carthaginian army is commanded by Hamilcar
Barkas, an African and father of Hannibal.
Behar in N.E. India until 227.
At the Battle
Mylae, near Messina, the Romans win their first naval victory against
of Ecnomus more than 700 ships are engaged. After this naval victory,
Romans invade Africa by sea.
King of Ts'in, China.
the so-called leap year, is included in the Egyptian calendar.
of the Aegatian Isles, Carthage sues for peace, ending the First Punic
At the Battle
Telamon some 40,000 Gauls are killed by the Romans. Roman armies enter
Illyria, on the Adriatic.
emperor of China; he dies in 210.
army crosses the Alps with elephants into Italy. He remains victorious
and unconquered in Italy for 15 years.
At the Battle
Cannae in Italy, Hannibal defeats the Romans.
defeats Hannibal in the Battle of Zama, which is close to Carthage.
Rome and Macedonia lasts until 197.
The war with
Seleucid Dynasty in Syria breaks up Alexander's empire.
Afer (i.e., the African), better known as Terence, author of comedies,
is sold as a slave.
Chinese people, come into western Turkestan and later form the
are destroyed in the Third Punic War.
Pergamum, a Greek city, to Rome, forming the Roman province of "Asia."
The Romans war
Jugurtha, King of Numidia, until 106.
drives back the Germans.
the greatest of the Han monarchs in China, conquers the Tarim Valley.
and consul, dies.
under the leadership of Spartacus, a Roman gladiator.
Roman troops to the Caspian Sea and the Euphrates River. He encounters
the Alani in Russia.
Great, King of Pontus on the Black Sea, dies.
and financier, is killed at Carrhae. Mongolians join with the Parthians
in Asia Minor.
daughter of Ptolemy II, becomes the Queen and last independent ruler of
Pompey at Pharsalos; he is assassinated four years later.
of Actium is decided when Cleopatra deserts with 31 ships in the midst
princeps; he rules Rome until 14 AD.
of Meroë, and sacks Nepata. Meroë is renowned for its
King of Meroë; Queen Amanitere is his co-ruler.
The true date
birth of Jesus the Christ according to H.G. Wells' Outline
monk, Dionysius the Little, records this date as the beginning of the
Moesia (modern Serbia and Bulgaria) is established.
of Pannonia is established. The Imperial Roman boundary is carried to
dies; he is succeeded by Tiberius.
Evidence of iron-working
in Zambia is discovered.
Tiberius as Caesar.
Claudius I, a
the first emperor of the legions, is made emperor by the pretorian
after the murder of Caligula.
the Roman garrison in Britain.
Nero lets Rome
and blames the Christians.
Within one year Galba, Otho, Vitellus and Vespasian become Roman
emperor, the so-called Flavian Dynasty begins.
is annexed by the Romans.
emperor, beginning the so-called Antoine Dynasty.
Pan Chau, a
general, is encamped on the Caspian Sea.
Emperor Trajan. The Roman Empire is at its greatest extent.
the Buddhist monarch, Kanishka, reigns in North India, to which reign
adds Kashgar, Yarkand, and Khotan.
succeeds Antoninus Pius as emperor.
begins and lasts to the death of Marcus Aurelius in 180. This plague
Catholic Pope is St.
Victor I, an African, who serves as Pope until his death in 197.
his accomplishments are his reaffirming the holy feast of Easter to be
held on Sunday as Pope Pius I had done and the addition of acolytes to
the attendance of the clergy during the celebration of the Mass. He is
buried in the Vatican near the body of the Apostle Peter, the first
known African Pope is St.
Miltiades who is Pope from 311 to 314. He is buried in Rome on the
famous Appian Way. St.
Gelasius I who served as Pope from 492 to 496 is the third African
Pope. He is also buried in the Basilica of St. Peter. There is
no amazement at African Popes and fathers of the church during the
five centuries. First, because the matter of black and white has not
fanned to its later racist pitch. Second, strong African nations show
consideration for Christians and Christianity than other nations.
for instance, is a haven for Christians persecuted in other lands.
are records of bishops in Greece and other parts of the world seeking
for Christians in Ethiopia by way of intervention from the Bishop of
and Egypt. Men like St.
Augustine, the son of an African woman; Tertullian and Cyprian,
Carthaginians, are as black as Hannibal.
See also Fr. Martin de Porres Walsh, O.P., The Ancient Black
Septimius Severus, a Carthaginian, becomes emperor of Rome until
information on this African emperor and other Africans in classical
and Greece, see A. Birley, Septimius Severus: 7he African Emperor (1972);
Frank Snowden, "The Negro in Classical Italy," American Journal of
Philology, 1974, "The Negro in Ancient Greece," American
and "Iconographical Evidence on the Black Populations in Greco-Roman
in The Image of the Black in Western Art, Vol. I (1976);
Jones, Profiles in Afncan Heritage (1972).
The end of the
dynasty and the beginning of four hundred years of division in China.
first Sassanid shah, puts an end to the Arsacid line in Persia.
begins his teachings. He preaches throughout Iran, India and China.
the Danube and raid the Roman Empire.
of Christians continues in Rome.
A black woman,
Zenobia, rules Palmyra, an ancient city in Syria, northeast of
II defeats the Goths at Nish.
carried as a captive to Rome, marking the end of the brief glories of
The Goths are
Pontus. The Emperor Probus forces back the Franks and the Alemanni.
emperor of Rome.
Empire of Ghana is formed in region of the Niger.
Great becomes emperor.
the persecution of Christians.
Great presides over a Christian Council at Arles.
are driven back.
Great presides over the Council
of Nicaea, which he convenes to decide the controversy over the
of Christ to God. In 330, he destroys heathen temples.
by Goths, obtain leave to settle in Pannonia.
Great is baptized on his death-bed.
Ethiopia. According to St.
Augustine . . .
is known as the Christian religion existed among the ancients, and
did not exist; from the beginning of the human race until the time when
Christ came in the flesh, at which time the true religion,
which already existed began to be called Christianity' (Retractt.
xiii). . . . This astonishing declaration was made in the early
century of our era. It can be asserted with little chance of refutation
that if this affirmation of the pious Augustine had not sunk out of
but had been kept in open view through the period of Western history,
whole course of that history would have been vastly altered for the
. . . It stands as hardly less than a point-blank repudiation of all
chief asserverations on which the structure of Christian tradition
Every child born to Christian parents in [twenty] centries has been
with the unqualified belief that Christianity was completely new, and
first true religion in world history; that it was vouchsafed to
the world by God himself and brought to earth by the sole divine
ever commissioned to convey God's truth to mankind; that it flashed out
amid the lingering murks of Pagan darkness as the first ray of true
to illumine the pathway of evolution for the safe treading of human
All previous religion was the superstitious product of primitive
of mind. Christianity was the first piercing of the long night of black
heathenism by the benignant gift of God. . . . Augustine shatters this
illusion and this jealously preserved phantom of blind credulity. From
remotest antiquity, he asserts, there has always existed in the world
true religion. It illuminated the intellects of the most ancient Sages,
Prophets, Priests and Kings. It built the foundation for every national
religion, the tenets of which consisted of reformulations of its
ageless principles of knowledge and wisdom. It went under a variety of
in ancient Egypt; Orphism
in Early Greece; Zoroastrianism
in Persia; Brahmanism
in India; Taoism
in China; Shintoism
in Japan and China. . . . even [African
traditional religions] fostered it. Mystery
cultism dramatized and ritualized it in many lands. Social usages,
all the round of annual festivals, chimney-corner tale and castle,
legend and folklore carried it down the stream of time. Always it
among men; never was it not present in the world. Hardly ever
at its real value, its representations badly misconceived, its import
and travestied at every turn in popular practice, it yet existed and
down to Augustine's day" (Alvin Boyd Kuhn, Shadow of theThird
Century, Elizabeth, NJ: Academy Press, 1949, pp. 3-4). For more
on the Pagan origins of Christianity, see T.W. Doane, Bible Myths
Their Parallels in Other Religions (1970); Sir James G. Frazer, The
Golden Bough (1963); Edward Carpenter, Pagan and Christian
Creeds (1920); Godfrey Higgins, Anacalypsis. 2 Vols.
Massey, Ancient Egypt, The Light of tlle World. 2 Vols.
Albert Churchward, The Signs and Symbols of Primordial Man (1913);
and G.R.S. Mead, Did Jesus Live 100 BC? (1968)" (see John G.
Jackson, Christianity before Christ ).
born in Carthage, North Africa.
attempts to substitute Mithraism
a Spaniard, becomes Roman Emperor.
the statue of Serapis, son of Horus,
the Great becomes emperor of the East and the West. When he dies in
and Arcadius redivide the empire with Stilicho and Alaric as their
under Alaric capture Rome.
in southern Spain. The Huns settle in Pannonia, the Goths in Dalmatia.
Suevi settle in Portugal and northern Spain. The Engles, i.e. English,
Genseric invade Africa.
by the Vandals.
and is defeated by the Franks, Alemanni, and Romans at Troyes.
Attila the Hun
king of a medley of Teutonic tribes, informs Constantinople that there
is no emperor in the West, marking the end of the Western Empire.
founder of the Benedictine Order, is born.
Clovis is the
Merovingian to rule in France.
breaks away from the Orthodox Christian Church.
the Ostrogoth conquers Italy and becomes King of Italy, but is
subject to Constantinople. The Goths settle in a garrison of specially
Ephthalite Attila of India, is overthrown.
the schools of Athens, which have flourished nearly a thousand years.
Justinian's general, takes Naples.
his Sassanid reign.
A great plague
out in Constantinople.
The Goths are
from Italy by Justinian. Cassiodorus founds his monastery.
The Lombards conquer most of northern Italy, leaving Ravenna and Rome
up the Ephthalites in western Turkestan.
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is born.
Islamic Civilization" for an excellent timeline of Arabian history
from 4 AD — before the rise of Islam — to 1238.)
Chosroes I dies
dominant in Italy.
A plague rages
Great (or Gregory I) sees the vision of St. Angelo.
Songhay Empire is founded in Africa; the career of Antar, African
Roman Emperor, begins his reign.
II holds Egypt, Jerusalem and Damascus, and has armies on the
hegira, i.e. flight, to Medina occurs (pbuh).
At the Battle
Badr Muhammad comes away victorious.
defeats the Persians at Nineveh.
besiege Medina and almost kill Muhammad, the Prophet.
becomes emperor of China.
and succeeds his father, Chosroes II.
(pbuh) writes letters to all the rulers of the known world.
The Buddhist Yuan
Chwang (Sywan-Dzang) journeys to India.
(pbuh) returns to Mecca.
dies (pbuh); his brother-in-law, Omar, becomes the second caliph,
Abu Bekr in 634.
At the Battle
the Yarmuk, a tributary of the River Jordan, Khalid defeats Heraclius.
to Sian-Fu, China, after 16 years in India.
is defeated by the Moslems.
Phoenicians circumnavigate the continent of Africa.
becomes the first of the Omayyad caliphs.
Constantinople by sea.
becomes Archbishop of Canterbury.
The last of
sea attacks by Muawija on Constantinople takes place.
Frankish mayor of the palace, reunites Austrasia and Neustria.
A Saracen army
Spain from Africa. The Muslims remain there for more than 781 years.
successor of Walid, fails to take Constantinople. The Omayyad line
Pepin's son, becomes mayor of the palace.
The domains of
Caliph Walid I extend from the Pyrenees, which separate France from
in Egypt after Caliph Yazid has all Christian images and pagan statues
destroyed. This revolt is repeated in 739.
Moors, are defeated by Charles Martel at Battle of Tours, France.
an English monk and historian, dies.
Walid II, the
overthrown. Abu-l-Abbas becomes the first Abbasid caliph. Spain remains
Omayyad. The Arab Empire begins to break up.
it is reported, the earliest building was constructed at Zimbabwe.
Charles Martel's son and the father of Charlemagne,
is crowned King of the Franks.
apostle of Germany, is martyred.
If You Haven't Already