Your History Online I
 
 
 A Chronological History of Africans
in America, in Africa,
and in the Diaspora,
1600 BCE to 1980 AD*
   

      
   
Your History Online was originally compiled by Edward W. Crosby, PhD, and published by Ginn Press, a division of Simon & Schuster in 1984, as Your History, A Chronology of Notable Events in the History of Africans* in America, in Africa and the Diaspora, 1600 BCE to 1980 AD, 484 pages, incl. Index.** Go to the Prefaces and Introduction to the First and Second Editions of Your History Online. This online history is divided into four major sections and nineteen subsections, each of which is given a heading based on major and minor themes that help place events within historical time and space. Each major section begins with a brief overview of the period covered. These overviews help the reader understand historical trends and prevent the events being disconnected from other events that occurred during the same era. Included in this chronological record are several illustrations of people, places and things, posters, and documents. Also included are diagrams, tables of historical data, figures and charts, and  historical maps. See also the Acknowledgments and Bibliography of sources referred to and individuals who assisted in the development of Your History Online.
 
  NATION BUILDING AND DISINTEGRATION
1600 BCE – 1829

his first section of Your History Online covers several centuries divided into four parts:    Part I: "Empires Rise and Fall," Part II: "African Underdevelopment Begins," Part III:"The Contagion of Liberty," and Part IV: "Taking Giant Steps." We witness here the beginning of the centuries- long, world-wide struggle of humanity to redeem itself in the face of great odds. This odyssey from ancient times in Africa, Asia and Europe into the 19th century sets the stage for the future course of human events and relationships among men and women of various races, skin colors and cultures. In the process, it becomes clear that instability — political, economic and social — in the governance of the empires of Europe, Asia, the so-called Middle East and Africa will plague generations to come, for imperialism, wars, assassinations, and unbridled oppression characterize the period. In Africa, for instance, European raids, first for commerce and later for human chattel, pave the way for the rise of capitalism and the consequent disintegration and disruption of development on this vast continent. In the so-called "New World," Spanish, Portuguese, British, Dutch, and French "discoveries" and subsequent colonial subjugation of vast territories presage a frenzied rush to rape the Americas of their gold, silver, and agricultural and human resources. Nevertheless, the events highlighted here make manifest how the "Contagion of Liberty" progressed from the fervor generated by the American and French revolutions to the successful revolution of the Haitian people and in turn to the liberation struggles of Africans in America This period is also noted for the refusal of African and other black peoples to relinquish their innate dynamism in religious, social, political, educational and creative endeavors. Through their struggle and, as if oblivious to their own disabilities, American Africans reach out to their brothers and sisters for support and succeed in letters and in the arts, in commerce and in industry. This section concludes with black people joining with their white allies to become more strident and militant in voicing their demands. For the most part, however, American Africans and their counterparts elsewhere in the Americas and Africa are preparing, during the period 's waning years, to take their liberation into their own hands.    
 
  

Part I. Empires Rise and Fall
 
     Time Period: ca. 1600 BCE to AD 755

ca. 1600 BCE  
Egypt is liberated from the Hyksos, nomadic Semites, who had founded a "Shepherd" dynasty there. Horses are also introduced into Egypt.  

Influence of early Cretan civilization reaches the Greek Isles.  

ca. 1526  
The Queen Hatshepsut, the first female Pharaoh, reigns in Egypt during the XVIIIth Dynasty, when Egypt has the first well-developed example of state socialism.   

ca. 1420  
A new strain of African blood comes to the Royal Egyptian line through Queen Mutemua (or Mutemwiya), whose son, Amenhotep III, built the great temple of Luxor and the colossi of Memnon.   

ca. 1000  
The cattle-owning people of Kenya develop a stone-bowl culture.  

814  
Carthage is built near present-day Tunis in North Africa.  

790  
The Ethiopians rule Egypt during the XXIInd Dynasty.  

776  
The Olympic games begin in Greece and do much to maintain that sense of a common Greek life (pan-Hellenism) which transcends the narrow politics of the city states.   

751  
The Ethiopian King, Piankhi, who began his career as King of Nubia, ascends the throne of Egypt.   

745  
Tiglath-pileser III conquers Babylonia and founds the new Assyrian Empire.  

738  
King Menahem of Israel buys off Tiglath-pileser III.  

735  
The Greeks settle in Sicily.  

722   
King Sargon II arms the Assyrians with iron weapons for the first time and in 721 carries out the deportation of the "Lost Ten Tribes of Israel" that was ordered by Tiglath-pileser III.     

716   
The XXVth Kushite Dynasty begins when a vast army of Ethiopians led by Shabaka conquers Egypt.   

704   
Sennacherib, the son of King Sargon II, leads his Assyrian army to the borders of Egypt. In 701, Kush is relieved when a pestilence destroys this Assyrian army.   

671   
Esarhaddon, Sennacherib's son, takes Thebes in Upper Egypt, overthrowing Tarhaka, the last ruler of the XXVth Ethiopian Dynasty. Babylonia is suzerain over the Nile for the first time. All the Ethiopian Pharaohs, from Piankhi to Tandamane, are buried in pyramids at their ancestral home in Napata.   
    
670   
Iron-smelting begins in Meroë. Iron is not used in Egypt until 650.   
    
667   
Sardanapalus conquers Lower Egypt.   
    
664   
Psammetichus I restores the freedom of Egypt and founds the XXVIth Dynasty. He is assisted against Assyria by Lydian troops sent by King Gyges.   
    
660   
Byzantium (Constantinople or Istanbul) is built.   
    
610   
Necho II of Egypt tries to link the Nile and the Red Sea with a canal. In 608, he defeats Josiah, King of Judah, at the Battle of Megiddo.   
    
606   
Nineveh, capital of Assyria, is captured by the Chaldean Babylonians and the Medes, establishing the Chaldean Empire.   
    
604   
Necho II is pushed to the Euphrates and overthrown by Nebuchadnezzar II, who attacks Egypt in 601.   
    
593   
The Temple of the Sun is constructed in Meroë.   
    
586   
Jerusalem is destroyed, and the Jews are exiled in Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar; many of them, including the Prophet Jeremiah, flee to Egypt and settle there.   

"And all the vessels of the house of God, great and small, and the treasures of the House of the Lord, and the treasures of the king, and of his princes; all these he brought to Babylon. And they burnt the House of God and brake down the wall of Jerusalem, and burnt all the goodly vessels thereof, and them that had escaped from the sword carried he away to Babylon; where they were servants to him and his sons until the reign of the kingdom of Persia" (II Chronicles, XXXVI, 18, 19, 20) in 539.
550   
Cyrus II, the Persian, succeeds Cyaxares, the Mede, and deposes Croesus, King of Lydia.   
    
Buddha lives about this time. So also do Confucius and Lao Tse.   

539   
Cyrus II takes Babylon, founding the Persian Empire.   
    
527   
Peisistratus, the tyrant of Athens, dies.   
    
Cambyses of Persia leads an expedition against Ethiopia.   
    
525   
Cambyses, Cyrus II's successor, conquers Egypt and is proclaimed Pharaoh.   
    
Aeschylus, the Greek Tragedian, is born.   
    
521   
Darius I, the son of Hystaspes, rules from the Hellespont (the Dardane]les) to the Indus. He leads an expedition to Scythia, north of the Danube. Under his rule, the canal from the Nile to the Red Sea, begun by Necho II in 610, is completed.  
 

495  
Sophocles, the Greek dramatist, is born.   
    
490   
The Greeks and Persians battle at Marathon.   
    
484   
Herodotus, the Greek father of "history," is born.   
    
480   
The Persians are beaten at Thermopylae and Salamis by the Greeks.   
    
Euripides, the Greek dramatist, is born.   

479   
The battles of Plataea and Mycale complete the repulse of Persia.   
    
470   
Hanno, the Carthaginian, sails along the African coast from Ceuta, i.e., Spanish Morocco, extending Carthaginian trade southward as far as present-day Nigeria and the Cameroon mountains.   
    
465   
Xerxes the Great, son of Darius I and King of Persia, is murdered; his son, Artaxerses I, succeeds him.   
    
438   
Herodotus recites his Histories in Athens.   
    
431   
The Peloponnesian War begins and lasts until 404.   
    
429   
Pericles, the Athenian statesman, dies. Herodotus dies in the same year.   
    
427   
Aristophanes, Greek poet of comedy, begins his career.   
    
Plato, the Greek philosopher who studies in Egypt, is born; he lives until 347.   
    
409   
After building a fleet and recruiting mercenaries in 415, Carthage invades Sicily, precipitating a war that lasts 100 years.   
    
401   
The retreat of the "Ten Thousand Greeks" occurs after Cyrus the Younger's victory in Babylonia.   
    
ca. 400   
Hippocrates begins the development of medical sciences in Greece, some 21 centuries after Imhotep, an Egyptian architect, astrologer, sage and diety, distinguished himself a practicing physician. . . . 
   
"Egypt gave the world some of the greatest personalities in the history of mankind. In this regard, Imhotep is singularly outstanding. In the ancient history of Egypt, no individual left a deeper impression than the commoner Imhotep. He was the world's first multi-genius. He was the real father of medicine. In his book, Evolution of Modern Medicine (London, 1921, p.10), Sir William Osler refers to Imhotep as 'the first figure of a physician to stand out clearly from the mists of antiquity'" (John Henrik Clarke, "Africa: The Passing of the Golden Age," Tlle National Scene, IV:4, August-September, 1975). 

390   
Brennus, leader of the Gauls, sacks Rome.   
    
366   
Camillus accepts Plebian demands and builds the Temple of Concord.   
    
359   
Philip becomes King of Macedonia.   
    
338   
Alexander the Great is in command at the Battle of Chaeronea.   
    
336   
Macedonian troops cross into Asia. Philip, Alexander's father, is murdered.   
    
334   
At the Battle of the Granicus, Clitus the Black saves Alexander the Great's life.   
    
332   
Alexander the Great conquers the Persian Empire which includes Egypt, ending the XXXIst (Persian) Dynasty.   
    
331   
During the Battle of Arbela, Darius III's generals revolt against his weakness.   
    
330   
Darius III is killed.   
    
321   
Chandragupta conquers the Magadha Kingdom in India.   
    
The Romans are completely beaten by the Samnites at the Battle of the Caudine Forks.   
    
303   
Chandragupta repulses Seleucus, the first king of Syria.   

ca. 300   
Construction of the Great Wall of China is begun. Started during the Ch'in dynasty, it is not completed until 211 and winds across northern China for almost 1,864 miles, from Kansu province to Hopeh province.   
    
285   
Ptolemy Soter, founder of the dynasty of Greek kings of Egypt in 320, dies.   
    
281   
Pyrrhus, King of Epirus (a country in N.W. ancient Greece), invades Italy.   
    
280   
The Romans are defeated by Pyrrhus at Heraclea, an ancient city in Italy.   
    
279   
At the Battle of Ausculum, Pyrrhus defeats the Romans again.   
    
278   
The Gauls raid Asia Minor and settle in Galatia.   
    
275   
Pyrrhus leaves Italy.   
    
264   
During the first Punic War the Carthaginian army is commanded by Hamilcar Barkas, an African and father of Hannibal.   
    
Asoka reigns in Behar in N.E. India until 227.   
    
260   
At the Battle of Mylae, near Messina, the Romans win their first naval victory against the Carthaginians.   
    
256   
During the Battle of Ecnomus more than 700 ships are engaged. After this naval victory, the Romans invade Africa by sea.   
    
246   
Shi-Hwang-ti becomes King of Ts'in, China.   
    
ca. 243   
An additional year, the so-called leap year, is included in the Egyptian calendar.   
    
241   
After the Battle of the Aegatian Isles, Carthage sues for peace, ending the First Punic War.   
      
225   
At the Battle of Telamon some 40,000 Gauls are killed by the Romans. Roman armies enter Illyria, on the Adriatic.   
    
220   
Shi-Hwang-ti becomes emperor of China; he dies in 210.   
    
219   
The Second Punic War begins.   

218   
Hannibal's army crosses the Alps with elephants into Italy. He remains victorious and unconquered in Italy for 15 years.   
    
216   
At the Battle of Cannae in Italy, Hannibal defeats the Romans.   
    
202   
Scipio Africanus defeats Hannibal in the Battle of Zama, which is close to Carthage.   
    
200   
The war between Rome and Macedonia lasts until 197.   
    
192   
The war with the Seleucid Dynasty in Syria breaks up Alexander's empire.   
    
ca. 185   
Publius Terentius Afer (i.e., the African), better known as Terence, author of comedies, is sold as a slave.   
    
149   
The Yueh-Chi, a Chinese people, come into western Turkestan and later form the Indo-Scythians.   
    
146   
Carthage and Corinth are destroyed in the Third Punic War.   
    
133   
Attalus III bequeaths Pergamum, a Greek city, to Rome, forming the Roman province of "Asia."   

121   
Gaius Grachus is killed.   
    
118   
The Romans war with Jugurtha, King of Numidia, until 106.   
    
102   
Marius, Roman general, drives back the Germans.   
    
100   
Wu-Ti, the greatest of the Han monarchs in China, conquers the Tarim Valley.   

89   
All Italians become Roman citizens.   
    
86   
Marius, Roman general and consul, dies.   
    
78   
Sulla, the Roman dictator, dies.   
    
73   
Roman slaves revolt under the leadership of Spartacus, a Roman gladiator.   
    
66   
Pompey leads his Roman troops to the Caspian Sea and the Euphrates River. He encounters the Alani in Russia.   
    
Mithridates the Great, King of Pontus on the Black Sea, dies.   
    
53   
Crassus, Roman statesman and financier, is killed at Carrhae. Mongolians join with the Parthians in Asia Minor.   
    
51   
Cleopatra, daughter of Ptolemy II, becomes the Queen and last independent ruler of Egypt.   
    
48   
Julius Ceasar defeats Pompey at Pharsalos; he is assassinated four years later.   
    
31   
The naval battle of Actium is decided when Cleopatra deserts with 31 ships in the midst of battle.   
    
27   
Augustus Caesar princeps; he rules Rome until 14 AD.   
    
23   
The Roman Petronius defeats Candace, Queen of Meroë, and sacks Nepata. Meroë is renowned for its female rulers.   
    
20   
Natakamani becomes King of Meroë; Queen Amanitere is his co-ruler.   
    
ca. 4   
The true date of birth of Jesus the Christ according to H.G. Wells' Outline of History (1956).   
    
1 CE   
A fifth century monk, Dionysius the Little, records this date as the beginning of the Christian Era.   
    
6   
The province of Moesia (modern Serbia and Bulgaria) is established.   
    
9   
The Roman province of Pannonia is established. The Imperial Roman boundary is carried to the Danube.   
    
14   
Augustus Caesar dies; he is succeeded by Tiberius.   
    
20   
Evidence of iron-working in Zambia is discovered.   

37   
Caligula succeeds Tiberius as Caesar.   
    
41   
Claudius I, a madman, the first emperor of the legions, is made emperor by the pretorian guard after the murder of Caligula.   
     
54   
Nero succeeds Claudius.   
    
61   
Queen Boadicea massacres the Roman garrison in Britain.   
    
64   
Nero lets Rome burn and blames the Christians.   
    
68   
Nero commits suicide. Within one year Galba, Otho, Vitellus and Vespasian become Roman emperors in succession.   
    
69   
With Vespasian becoming emperor, the so-called Flavian Dynasty begins.   
    
79   
Titus succeeds Vespasian.   
    
84   
Northern Britain is annexed by the Romans.   
    
96   
Nerva becomes Roman emperor, beginning the so-called Antoine Dynasty.   
    
102   
Pan Chau, a Chinese general, is encamped on the Caspian Sea.   
    
117   
Hadrian succeeds Emperor Trajan. The Roman Empire is at its greatest extent.   
    
138   
Antoninus Pius succeeds Hadrian.   
    
150   
About this time the Buddhist monarch, Kanishka, reigns in North India, to which reign he adds Kashgar, Yarkand, and Khotan.   
    
161   
Marcus Aurelius succeeds Antoninus Pius as emperor.   
    
164   
The great plague begins and lasts to the death of Marcus Aurelius in 180. This plague also devastates Asia.   
    
189   
The fifteenth Roman Catholic Pope is St. Victor I, an African, who serves as Pope until his death in 197. Among his accomplishments are his reaffirming the holy feast of Easter to be held on Sunday as Pope Pius I had done and the addition of acolytes to the attendance of the clergy during the celebration of the Mass. He is buried in the Vatican near the body of the Apostle Peter, the first pope.   

The second known African Pope is St. Miltiades who is Pope from 311 to 314. He is buried in Rome on the famous Appian Way. St. Gelasius I who served as Pope from 492 to 496 is the third African Pope. He is also buried in the Basilica of St. Peter. There is practically no amazement at African Popes and fathers of the church during the first five centuries. First, because the matter of black and white has not been fanned to its later racist pitch. Second, strong African nations show more consideration for Christians and Christianity than other nations. Ethiopia, for instance, is a haven for Christians persecuted in other lands. There are records of bishops in Greece and other parts of the world seeking asylum for Christians in Ethiopia by way of intervention from the Bishop of Alexandria and Egypt. Men like St. Augustine, the son of an African woman; Tertullian and Cyprian, both Carthaginians, are as black as Hannibal. See also Fr. Martin de Porres Walsh, O.P., The Ancient Black Christians (ca. 1964).
193   
L. Septimius Severus, a Carthaginian, becomes emperor of Rome until 211.   
For more information on this African emperor and other Africans in classical Rome and Greece, see A. Birley, Septimius Severus: 7he African Emperor (1972); Frank Snowden, "The Negro in Classical Italy," American Journal of Philology, 1974, "The Negro in Ancient Greece," American Anthropologist, 1948, and "Iconographical Evidence on the Black Populations in Greco-Roman Antiquity," in The Image of the Black in Western Art, Vol. I (1976); Edward Jones, Profiles in Afncan Heritage (1972).
220   
The end of the Han dynasty and the beginning of four hundred years of division in China.  
      
226   
Ardashir I, the first Sassanid shah, puts an end to the Arsacid line in Persia.   
    
242   
Mani, the founder of Manichaeism, begins his teachings. He preaches throughout Iran, India and China.   
    
247   
The Goths cross the Danube and raid the Roman Empire.   
    
250   
The persecution of Christians continues in Rome.   
    
267   
A black woman, Queen Zenobia, rules Palmyra, an ancient city in Syria, northeast of Damascus, until 272.   
    
269   
The Emperor Claudius II defeats the Goths at Nish.   
    
270   
Aurelian becomes emperor.   
    
272   
Queen Zenobia is carried as a captive to Rome, marking the end of the brief glories of Palmyra.   
    
275   
Probus succeeds Aurelian.   
 
276   
The Goths are in Pontus. The Emperor Probus forces back the Franks and the Alemanni.   
    
277   
Mani is crucified in Persia.   
    
284   
Diocletian becomes emperor of Rome.   
    
300   
The Empire of Ghana is formed in region of the Niger.   

303   
Diocletian persecutes the Christians.   
    
306   
Constantine the Great becomes emperor.   
    
311   
Galerius abandons the persecution of Christians.   
    
314   
Constantine the Great presides over a Christian Council at Arles.   
    
321   
Fresh Gothic raids are driven back.   
    
323   
Constantine the Great presides over the Council of Nicaea, which he convenes to decide the controversy over the relationship of Christ to God. In 330, he destroys heathen temples.   
    
337   
The Vandals, driven by Goths, obtain leave to settle in Pannonia.   

350   
Constantine the Great is baptized on his death-bed.   
    
Christianity reaches Ethiopia. According to St. Augustine . . .   

"'that which is known as the Christian religion existed among the ancients, and never did not exist; from the beginning of the human race until the time when Christ came in the flesh, at which time the true religion, which already existed began to be called Christianity' (Retractt. I, xiii). . . . This astonishing declaration was made in the early fourth century of our era. It can be asserted with little chance of refutation that if this affirmation of the pious Augustine had not sunk out of sight, but had been kept in open view through the period of Western history, the whole course of that history would have been vastly altered for the better. . . . It stands as hardly less than a point-blank repudiation of all the chief asserverations on which the structure of Christian tradition rests. Every child born to Christian parents in [twenty] centries has been indoctrinated with the unqualified belief that Christianity was completely new, and the first true religion in world history; that it was vouchsafed to the world by God himself and brought to earth by the sole divine emissary ever commissioned to convey God's truth to mankind; that it flashed out amid the lingering murks of Pagan darkness as the first ray of true light to illumine the pathway of evolution for the safe treading of human feet. All previous religion was the superstitious product of primitive childishness of mind. Christianity was the first piercing of the long night of black heathenism by the benignant gift of God. . . . Augustine shatters this illusion and this jealously preserved phantom of blind credulity. From remotest antiquity, he asserts, there has always existed in the world the true religion. It illuminated the intellects of the most ancient Sages, Prophets, Priests and Kings. It built the foundation for every national religion, the tenets of which consisted of reformulations of its ubiquitous ageless principles of knowledge and wisdom. It went under a variety of designations: Hermeticism in ancient Egypt; Orphism in Early Greece; Zoroastrianism in Persia; Brahmanism in India; Taoism in China; Shintoism in Japan and China. . . . even [African traditional religions] fostered it. Mystery cultism dramatized and ritualized it in many lands. Social usages, all the round of annual festivals, chimney-corner tale and castle, country-side legend and folklore carried it down the stream of time. Always it existed among men; never was it not present in the world. Hardly ever apprehended at its real value, its representations badly misconceived, its import warped and travestied at every turn in popular practice, it yet existed and came down to Augustine's day" (Alvin Boyd Kuhn, Shadow of theThird Century, Elizabeth, NJ: Academy Press, 1949, pp. 3-4). For more inform-ation on the Pagan origins of Christianity, see T.W. Doane, Bible Myths and Their Parallels in Other Religions (1970); Sir James G. Frazer, The Golden Bough (1963); Edward Carpenter, Pagan and Christian Creeds (1920); Godfrey Higgins, Anacalypsis. 2 Vols. (1836); Gerald Massey, Ancient Egypt, The Light of tlle World. 2 Vols. (1907); Albert Churchward, The Signs and Symbols of Primordial Man (1913); and G.R.S. Mead, Did Jesus Live 100 BC? (1968)" (see John G. Jackson, Christianity before Christ [1985]).
354   
St. Augustine is born in Carthage, North Africa.   
    
361   
Julian the Apostate attempts to substitute Mithraism for Christianity.   
    
379   
Theodosius the Great, a Spaniard, becomes Roman Emperor.   
    
390   
At Alexandria, Egypt, the statue of Serapis, son of Horus, is destroyed.   
    
392   
Theodosius the Great becomes emperor of the East and the West. When he dies in 395, Honorius and Arcadius redivide the empire with Stilicho and Alaric as their masters and protectors.   
    
410   
The Visigoths under Alaric capture Rome.   
    
425   
The Vandals settle in southern Spain. The Huns settle in Pannonia, the Goths in Dalmatia.   
    
The Visigoths and Suevi settle in Portugal and northern Spain. The Engles, i.e. English, invade Britain.   
    
429   
The Vandals under Genseric invade Africa.    
    
439   
Carthage is overrun by the Vandals.   
    
448   
Priscus visits Attila the Hun.   
    
451   
Attila raids Gaul and is defeated by the Franks, Alemanni, and Romans at Troyes.   
    
453   
Attila the Hun dies.   
    
455   
The Vandals sack Rome.   
    
470   
The Ephthalites raid India.   
    
476   
Odoacer, king of a medley of Teutonic tribes, informs Constantinople that there is no emperor in the West, marking the end of the Western Empire.   
    
480   
St. Benedict, Italian founder of the Benedictine Order, is born.   
    
481   
Clovis is the first Merovingian to rule in France.   
    
483   
The Nestorian Church breaks away from the Orthodox Christian Church.   
    
493   
Theodoric the Ostrogoth conquers Italy and becomes King of Italy, but is nominally subject to Constantinople. The Goths settle in a garrison of specially confiscated lands.   

527   
Justinian becomes Roman emperor.   
    
528   
Mihiragula, the Ephthalite Attila of India, is overthrown.   
    
529   
Justinian closes the schools of Athens, which have flourished nearly a thousand years. Belisariu, Justinian's general, takes Naples.   
    
531   
Chosroes I begins his Sassanid reign.   
    
543   
A great plague breaks out in Constantinople.   
    
544   
St. Benedict dies.   
    
553   
The Goths are expelled from Italy by Justinian. Cassiodorus founds his monastery.   
    
565   
Justinian dies. The Lombards conquer most of northern Italy, leaving Ravenna and Rome to Byzantium.   
    
The Turks break up the Ephthalites in western Turkestan.   
    
570   
The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is born.   

(See the "Chronology of Islamic Civilization" for an excellent timeline of Arabian history from 4 AD — before the rise of Islam — to 1238.)
579   
Chosroes I dies   

The Lombards are dominant in Italy.   

590   
A plague rages in Rome.   
    
Pope Gregory the Great (or Gregory I) sees the vision of St. Angelo.   
    
Chosroes II begins his reign.   
    
600   
The Songhay Empire is founded in Africa; the career of Antar, African warrior-poet, begins.   
    
610   
Heraclius, Eastern Roman Emperor, begins his reign.   
    
619   
Chosroes II holds Egypt, Jerusalem and Damascus, and has armies on the Hellespont.   
    
622   
The Prophet Muhammad's hegira, i.e. flight, to Medina occurs (pbuh).   

623   
At the Battle of Badr Muhammad comes away victorious.   
    
627   
Heraclius soundly defeats the Persians at Nineveh.   
    
The Meccan allies besiege Medina and almost kill Muhammad, the Prophet.   

Tai-Tsung becomes emperor of China.   

628   
Kavadh II murders and succeeds his father, Chosroes II.   
    
The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) writes letters to all the rulers of the known world.   
    
629   
The Buddhist Yuan Chwang (Sywan-Dzang) journeys to India.   
    
The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) returns to Mecca.   
    
632   
The Prophet Muhammad dies (pbuh); his brother-in-law, Omar, becomes the second caliph, succeeding Abu Bekr in 634.   
    
635   
Tai-Tsung receives Nestorian missionaries.   
    
636   
At the Battle of the Yarmuk, a tributary of the River Jordan, Khalid defeats Heraclius.   
    
The Moslems take Syria.   
    
638   
Jerusalem surrenders to Omar.   
    
644   
Othman becomes the third caliph.   
    
645   
Yuan Chwang returns to Sian-Fu, China, after 16 years in India.   
    
655   
The Byzantine fleet is defeated by the Moslems.   

656   
Othman is murdered at Medina.   
    
660   
The Phoenicians circumnavigate the continent of Africa.   
    
661   
Ali is murdered. Muawija becomes the first of the Omayyad caliphs.   
    
668   
Caliph Muawija attacks Constantinople by sea.   
    
Theodore of Tarsus becomes Archbishop of Canterbury.   
    
675   
The last of the sea attacks by Muawija on Constantinople takes place.   
    
687   
Pepin of Heristal, Frankish mayor of the palace, reunites Austrasia and Neustria.   
    
711   
A Saracen army invades Spain from Africa. The Muslims remain there for more than 781 years.   
    
716   
Suleiman, son and successor of Walid, fails to take Constantinople. The Omayyad line passes its climax.   
    
721   
Charles Martel, Pepin's son, becomes mayor of the palace.   
    
The domains of the Caliph Walid I extend from the Pyrenees, which separate France from Spain, to China.   
    
722   
The Copts revolt in Egypt after Caliph Yazid has all Christian images and pagan statues destroyed. This revolt is repeated in 739.   
    
732   
The Saracens, i.e. Moors, are defeated by Charles Martel at Battle of Tours, France.   
    
735   
The Venerable Bede, an English monk and historian, dies.   
    
743   
Walid II, the Unbelieving, becomes caliph.   
    
749   
The Omayyads are overthrown. Abu-l-Abbas becomes the first Abbasid caliph. Spain remains Omayyad. The Arab Empire begins to break up.   
    
750   
During this year, it is reported, the earliest building was constructed at Zimbabwe.   
    
751   
Pepin the Short, Charles Martel's son and the father of Charlemagne, is crowned King of the Franks.   
    
755   
St. Boniface, the apostle of Germany, is martyred.  

     
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Updated January 1, 2004

 
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