Your History Online I
 A Chronological History of Africans
in America, in Africa,
and in the Diaspora,
1600 BCE to 1980 AD*

Your History Online was originally compiled by Edward W. Crosby, PhD, and published by Ginn Press, a division of Simon & Schuster in 1984, as Your History, A Chronology of Notable Events in the History of Africans* in America, in Africa and the Diaspora, 1600 BCE to 1980 AD, 484 pages, incl. Index.** Go to the Prefaces and Introduction to the First and Second Editions of Your History Online. This online history is divided into four major sections and nineteen subsections, each of which is given a heading based on major and minor themes that help place events within historical time and space. Each major section begins with a brief overview of the period covered. These overviews help the reader understand historical trends and prevent the events being disconnected from other events that occurred during the same era. Included in this chronological record are several illustrations of people, places and things, posters, and documents. Also included are diagrams, tables of historical data, figures and charts, and  historical maps. See also the Acknowledgments and Bibliography of sources referred to and individuals who assisted in the development of Your History Online.
1600 BCE – 1829

his first section of Your History Online covers several centuries divided into four parts:    Part I: "Empires Rise and Fall," Part II: "African Underdevelopment Begins," Part III:"The Contagion of Liberty," and Part IV: "Taking Giant Steps." We witness here the beginning of the centuries- long, world-wide struggle of humanity to redeem itself in the face of great odds. This odyssey from ancient times in Africa, Asia and Europe into the 19th century sets the stage for the future course of human events and relationships among men and women of various races, skin colors and cultures. In the process, it becomes clear that instability — political, economic and social — in the governance of the empires of Europe, Asia, the so-called Middle East and Africa will plague generations to come, for imperialism, wars, assassinations, and unbridled oppression characterize the period. In Africa, for instance, European raids, first for commerce and later for human chattel, pave the way for the rise of capitalism and the consequent disintegration and disruption of development on this vast continent. In the so-called "New World," Spanish, Portuguese, British, Dutch, and French "discoveries" and subsequent colonial subjugation of vast territories presage a frenzied rush to rape the Americas of their gold, silver, and agricultural and human resources. Nevertheless, the events highlighted here make manifest how the "Contagion of Liberty" progressed from the fervor generated by the American and French revolutions to the successful revolution of the Haitian people and in turn to the liberation struggles of Africans in America This period is also noted for the refusal of African and other black peoples to relinquish their innate dynamism in religious, social, political, educational and creative endeavors. Through their struggle and, as if oblivious to their own disabilities, American Africans reach out to their brothers and sisters for support and succeed in letters and in the arts, in commerce and in industry. This section concludes with black people joining with their white allies to become more strident and militant in voicing their demands. For the most part, however, American Africans and their counterparts elsewhere in the Americas and Africa are preparing, during the period 's waning years, to take their liberation into their own hands.    

Part I. Empires Rise and Fall
     Time Period: ca. 1600 BCE to AD 755

ca. 1600 BCE  
Egypt is liberated from the Hyksos, nomadic Semites, who had founded a "Shepherd" dynasty there. Horses are also introduced into Egypt.  

Influence of early Cretan civilization reaches the Greek Isles.  

ca. 1526  
The Queen Hatshepsut, the first female Pharaoh, reigns in Egypt during the XVIIIth Dynasty, when Egypt has the first well-developed example of state socialism.   

ca. 1420  
A new strain of African blood comes to the Royal Egyptian line through Queen Mutemua (or Mutemwiya), whose son, Amenhotep III, built the great temple of Luxor and the colossi of Memnon.   

ca. 1000  
The cattle-owning people of Kenya develop a stone-bowl culture.  

Carthage is built near present-day Tunis in North Africa.  

The Ethiopians rule Egypt during the XXIInd Dynasty.  

The Olympic games begin in Greece and do much to maintain that sense of a common Greek life (pan-Hellenism) which transcends the narrow politics of the city states.   

The Ethiopian King, Piankhi, who began his career as King of Nubia, ascends the throne of Egypt.   

Tiglath-pileser III conquers Babylonia and founds the new Assyrian Empire.  

King Menahem of Israel buys off Tiglath-pileser III.  

The Greeks settle in Sicily.  

King Sargon II arms the Assyrians with iron weapons for the first time and in 721 carries out the deportation of the "Lost Ten Tribes of Israel" that was ordered by Tiglath-pileser III.     

The XXVth Kushite Dynasty begins when a vast army of Ethiopians led by Shabaka conquers Egypt.   

Sennacherib, the son of King Sargon II, leads his Assyrian army to the borders of Egypt. In 701, Kush is relieved when a pestilence destroys this Assyrian army.   

Esarhaddon, Sennacherib's son, takes Thebes in Upper Egypt, overthrowing Tarhaka, the last ruler of the XXVth Ethiopian Dynasty. Babylonia is suzerain over the Nile for the first time. All the Ethiopian Pharaohs, from Piankhi to Tandamane, are buried in pyramids at their ancestral home in Napata.   
Iron-smelting begins in Meroë. Iron is not used in Egypt until 650.   
Sardanapalus conquers Lower Egypt.   
Psammetichus I restores the freedom of Egypt and founds the XXVIth Dynasty. He is assisted against Assyria by Lydian troops sent by King Gyges.   
Byzantium (Constantinople or Istanbul) is built.   
Necho II of Egypt tries to link the Nile and the Red Sea with a canal. In 608, he defeats Josiah, King of Judah, at the Battle of Megiddo.   
Nineveh, capital of Assyria, is captured by the Chaldean Babylonians and the Medes, establishing the Chaldean Empire.   
Necho II is pushed to the Euphrates and overthrown by Nebuchadnezzar II, who attacks Egypt in 601.   
The Temple of the Sun is constructed in Meroë.   
Jerusalem is destroyed, and the Jews are exiled in Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar; many of them, including the Prophet Jeremiah, flee to Egypt and settle there.   

"And all the vessels of the house of God, great and small, and the treasures of the House of the Lord, and the treasures of the king, and of his princes; all these he brought to Babylon. And they burnt the House of God and brake down the wall of Jerusalem, and burnt all the goodly vessels thereof, and them that had escaped from the sword carried he away to Babylon; where they were servants to him and his sons until the reign of the kingdom of Persia" (II Chronicles, XXXVI, 18, 19, 20) in 539.
Cyrus II, the Persian, succeeds Cyaxares, the Mede, and deposes Croesus, King of Lydia.   
Buddha lives about this time. So also do Confucius and Lao Tse.   

Cyrus II takes Babylon, founding the Persian Empire.   
Peisistratus, the tyrant of Athens, dies.   
Cambyses of Persia leads an expedition against Ethiopia.   
Cambyses, Cyrus II's successor, conquers Egypt and is proclaimed Pharaoh.   
Aeschylus, the Greek Tragedian, is born.   
Darius I, the son of Hystaspes, rules from the Hellespont (the Dardane]les) to the Indus. He leads an expedition to Scythia, north of the Danube. Under his rule, the canal from the Nile to the Red Sea, begun by Necho II in 610, is completed.  

Sophocles, the Greek dramatist, is born.   
The Greeks and Persians battle at Marathon.   
Herodotus, the Greek father of "history," is born.   
The Persians are beaten at Thermopylae and Salamis by the Greeks.   
Euripides, the Greek dramatist, is born.   

The battles of Plataea and Mycale complete the repulse of Persia.   
Hanno, the Carthaginian, sails along the African coast from Ceuta, i.e., Spanish Morocco, extending Carthaginian trade southward as far as present-day Nigeria and the Cameroon mountains.   
Xerxes the Great, son of Darius I and King of Persia, is murdered; his son, Artaxerses I, succeeds him.   
Herodotus recites his Histories in Athens.   
The Peloponnesian War begins and lasts until 404.   
Pericles, the Athenian statesman, dies. Herodotus dies in the same year.   
Aristophanes, Greek poet of comedy, begins his career.   
Plato, the Greek philosopher who studies in Egypt, is born; he lives until 347.   
After building a fleet and recruiting mercenaries in 415, Carthage invades Sicily, precipitating a war that lasts 100 years.   
The retreat of the "Ten Thousand Greeks" occurs after Cyrus the Younger's victory in Babylonia.   
ca. 400   
Hippocrates begins the development of medical sciences in Greece, some 21 centuries after Imhotep, an Egyptian architect, astrologer, sage and diety, distinguished himself a practicing physician. . . . 
"Egypt gave the world some of the greatest personalities in the history of mankind. In this regard, Imhotep is singularly outstanding. In the ancient history of Egypt, no individual left a deeper impression than the commoner Imhotep. He was the world's first multi-genius. He was the real father of medicine. In his book, Evolution of Modern Medicine (London, 1921, p.10), Sir William Osler refers to Imhotep as 'the first figure of a physician to stand out clearly from the mists of antiquity'" (John Henrik Clarke, "Africa: The Passing of the Golden Age," Tlle National Scene, IV:4, August-September, 1975). 

Brennus, leader of the Gauls, sacks Rome.   
Camillus accepts Plebian demands and builds the Temple of Concord.   
Philip becomes King of Macedonia.   
Alexander the Great is in command at the Battle of Chaeronea.   
Macedonian troops cross into Asia. Philip, Alexander's father, is murdered.   
At the Battle of the Granicus, Clitus the Black saves Alexander the Great's life.   
Alexander the Great conquers the Persian Empire which includes Egypt, ending the XXXIst (Persian) Dynasty.   
During the Battle of Arbela, Darius III's generals revolt against his weakness.   
Darius III is killed.   
Chandragupta conquers the Magadha Kingdom in India.   
The Romans are completely beaten by the Samnites at the Battle of the Caudine Forks.   
Chandragupta repulses Seleucus, the first king of Syria.   

ca. 300   
Construction of the Great Wall of China is begun. Started during the Ch'in dynasty, it is not completed until 211 and winds across northern China for almost 1,864 miles, from Kansu province to Hopeh province.   
Ptolemy Soter, founder of the dynasty of Greek kings of Egypt in 320, dies.   
Pyrrhus, King of Epirus (a country in N.W. ancient Greece), invades Italy.   
The Romans are defeated by Pyrrhus at Heraclea, an ancient city in Italy.   
At the Battle of Ausculum, Pyrrhus defeats the Romans again.   
The Gauls raid Asia Minor and settle in Galatia.   
Pyrrhus leaves Italy.   
During the first Punic War the Carthaginian army is commanded by Hamilcar Barkas, an African and father of Hannibal.   
Asoka reigns in Behar in N.E. India until 227.   
At the Battle of Mylae, near Messina, the Romans win their first naval victory against the Carthaginians.   
During the Battle of Ecnomus more than 700 ships are engaged. After this naval victory, the Romans invade Africa by sea.   
Shi-Hwang-ti becomes King of Ts'in, China.   
ca. 243   
An additional year, the so-called leap year, is included in the Egyptian calendar.   
After the Battle of the Aegatian Isles, Carthage sues for peace, ending the First Punic War.   
At the Battle of Telamon some 40,000 Gauls are killed by the Romans. Roman armies enter Illyria, on the Adriatic.   
Shi-Hwang-ti becomes emperor of China; he dies in 210.   
The Second Punic War begins.   

Hannibal's army crosses the Alps with elephants into Italy. He remains victorious and unconquered in Italy for 15 years.   
At the Battle of Cannae in Italy, Hannibal defeats the Romans.   
Scipio Africanus defeats Hannibal in the Battle of Zama, which is close to Carthage.   
The war between Rome and Macedonia lasts until 197.   
The war with the Seleucid Dynasty in Syria breaks up Alexander's empire.   
ca. 185   
Publius Terentius Afer (i.e., the African), better known as Terence, author of comedies, is sold as a slave.   
The Yueh-Chi, a Chinese people, come into western Turkestan and later form the Indo-Scythians.   
Carthage and Corinth are destroyed in the Third Punic War.   
Attalus III bequeaths Pergamum, a Greek city, to Rome, forming the Roman province of "Asia."   

Gaius Grachus is killed.   
The Romans war with Jugurtha, King of Numidia, until 106.   
Marius, Roman general, drives back the Germans.   
Wu-Ti, the greatest of the Han monarchs in China, conquers the Tarim Valley.   

All Italians become Roman citizens.   
Marius, Roman general and consul, dies.   
Sulla, the Roman dictator, dies.   
Roman slaves revolt under the leadership of Spartacus, a Roman gladiator.   
Pompey leads his Roman troops to the Caspian Sea and the Euphrates River. He encounters the Alani in Russia.   
Mithridates the Great, King of Pontus on the Black Sea, dies.   
Crassus, Roman statesman and financier, is killed at Carrhae. Mongolians join with the Parthians in Asia Minor.   
Cleopatra, daughter of Ptolemy II, becomes the Queen and last independent ruler of Egypt.   
Julius Ceasar defeats Pompey at Pharsalos; he is assassinated four years later.   
The naval battle of Actium is decided when Cleopatra deserts with 31 ships in the midst of battle.   
Augustus Caesar princeps; he rules Rome until 14 AD.   
The Roman Petronius defeats Candace, Queen of Meroë, and sacks Nepata. Meroë is renowned for its female rulers.   
Natakamani becomes King of Meroë; Queen Amanitere is his co-ruler.   
ca. 4   
The true date of birth of Jesus the Christ according to H.G. Wells' Outline of History (1956).   
1 CE   
A fifth century monk, Dionysius the Little, records this date as the beginning of the Christian Era.   
The province of Moesia (modern Serbia and Bulgaria) is established.   
The Roman province of Pannonia is established. The Imperial Roman boundary is carried to the Danube.   
Augustus Caesar dies; he is succeeded by Tiberius.   
Evidence of iron-working in Zambia is discovered.   

Caligula succeeds Tiberius as Caesar.   
Claudius I, a madman, the first emperor of the legions, is made emperor by the pretorian guard after the murder of Caligula.   
Nero succeeds Claudius.   
Queen Boadicea massacres the Roman garrison in Britain.   
Nero lets Rome burn and blames the Christians.   
Nero commits suicide. Within one year Galba, Otho, Vitellus and Vespasian become Roman emperors in succession.   
With Vespasian becoming emperor, the so-called Flavian Dynasty begins.   
Titus succeeds Vespasian.   
Northern Britain is annexed by the Romans.   
Nerva becomes Roman emperor, beginning the so-called Antoine Dynasty.   
Pan Chau, a Chinese general, is encamped on the Caspian Sea.   
Hadrian succeeds Emperor Trajan. The Roman Empire is at its greatest extent.   
Antoninus Pius succeeds Hadrian.   
About this time the Buddhist monarch, Kanishka, reigns in North India, to which reign he adds Kashgar, Yarkand, and Khotan.   
Marcus Aurelius succeeds Antoninus Pius as emperor.   
The great plague begins and lasts to the death of Marcus Aurelius in 180. This plague also devastates Asia.   
The fifteenth Roman Catholic Pope is St. Victor I, an African, who serves as Pope until his death in 197. Among his accomplishments are his reaffirming the holy feast of Easter to be held on Sunday as Pope Pius I had done and the addition of acolytes to the attendance of the clergy during the celebration of the Mass. He is buried in the Vatican near the body of the Apostle Peter, the first pope.   

The second known African Pope is St. Miltiades who is Pope from 311 to 314. He is buried in Rome on the famous Appian Way. St. Gelasius I who served as Pope from 492 to 496 is the third African Pope. He is also buried in the Basilica of St. Peter. There is practically no amazement at African Popes and fathers of the church during the first five centuries. First, because the matter of black and white has not been fanned to its later racist pitch. Second, strong African nations show more consideration for Christians and Christianity than other nations. Ethiopia, for instance, is a haven for Christians persecuted in other lands. There are records of bishops in Greece and other parts of the world seeking asylum for Christians in Ethiopia by way of intervention from the Bishop of Alexandria and Egypt. Men like St. Augustine, the son of an African woman; Tertullian and Cyprian, both Carthaginians, are as black as Hannibal. See also Fr. Martin de Porres Walsh, O.P., The Ancient Black Christians (ca. 1964).
L. Septimius Severus, a Carthaginian, becomes emperor of Rome until 211.   
For more information on this African emperor and other Africans in classical Rome and Greece, see A. Birley, Septimius Severus: 7he African Emperor (1972); Frank Snowden, "The Negro in Classical Italy," American Journal of Philology, 1974, "The Negro in Ancient Greece," American Anthropologist, 1948, and "Iconographical Evidence on the Black Populations in Greco-Roman Antiquity," in The Image of the Black in Western Art, Vol. I (1976); Edward Jones, Profiles in Afncan Heritage (1972).
The end of the Han dynasty and the beginning of four hundred years of division in China.  
Ardashir I, the first Sassanid shah, puts an end to the Arsacid line in Persia.   
Mani, the founder of Manichaeism, begins his teachings. He preaches throughout Iran, India and China.   
The Goths cross the Danube and raid the Roman Empire.   
The persecution of Christians continues in Rome.   
A black woman, Queen Zenobia, rules Palmyra, an ancient city in Syria, northeast of Damascus, until 272.   
The Emperor Claudius II defeats the Goths at Nish.   
Aurelian becomes emperor.   
Queen Zenobia is carried as a captive to Rome, marking the end of the brief glories of Palmyra.   
Probus succeeds Aurelian.   
The Goths are in Pontus. The Emperor Probus forces back the Franks and the Alemanni.   
Mani is crucified in Persia.   
Diocletian becomes emperor of Rome.   
The Empire of Ghana is formed in region of the Niger.   

Diocletian persecutes the Christians.   
Constantine the Great becomes emperor.   
Galerius abandons the persecution of Christians.   
Constantine the Great presides over a Christian Council at Arles.   
Fresh Gothic raids are driven back.   
Constantine the Great presides over the Council of Nicaea, which he convenes to decide the controversy over the relationship of Christ to God. In 330, he destroys heathen temples.   
The Vandals, driven by Goths, obtain leave to settle in Pannonia.   

Constantine the Great is baptized on his death-bed.   
Christianity reaches Ethiopia. According to St. Augustine . . .   

"'that which is known as the Christian religion existed among the ancients, and never did not exist; from the beginning of the human race until the time when Christ came in the flesh, at which time the true religion, which already existed began to be called Christianity' (Retractt. I, xiii). . . . This astonishing declaration was made in the early fourth century of our era. It can be asserted with little chance of refutation that if this affirmation of the pious Augustine had not sunk out of sight, but had been kept in open view through the period of Western history, the whole course of that history would have been vastly altered for the better. . . . It stands as hardly less than a point-blank repudiation of all the chief asserverations on which the structure of Christian tradition rests. Every child born to Christian parents in [twenty] centries has been indoctrinated with the unqualified belief that Christianity was completely new, and the first true religion in world history; that it was vouchsafed to the world by God himself and brought to earth by the sole divine emissary ever commissioned to convey God's truth to mankind; that it flashed out amid the lingering murks of Pagan darkness as the first ray of true light to illumine the pathway of evolution for the safe treading of human feet. All previous religion was the superstitious product of primitive childishness of mind. Christianity was the first piercing of the long night of black heathenism by the benignant gift of God. . . . Augustine shatters this illusion and this jealously preserved phantom of blind credulity. From remotest antiquity, he asserts, there has always existed in the world the true religion. It illuminated the intellects of the most ancient Sages, Prophets, Priests and Kings. It built the foundation for every national religion, the tenets of which consisted of reformulations of its ubiquitous ageless principles of knowledge and wisdom. It went under a variety of designations: Hermeticism in ancient Egypt; Orphism in Early Greece; Zoroastrianism in Persia; Brahmanism in India; Taoism in China; Shintoism in Japan and China. . . . even [African traditional religions] fostered it. Mystery cultism dramatized and ritualized it in many lands. Social usages, all the round of annual festivals, chimney-corner tale and castle, country-side legend and folklore carried it down the stream of time. Always it existed among men; never was it not present in the world. Hardly ever apprehended at its real value, its representations badly misconceived, its import warped and travestied at every turn in popular practice, it yet existed and came down to Augustine's day" (Alvin Boyd Kuhn, Shadow of theThird Century, Elizabeth, NJ: Academy Press, 1949, pp. 3-4). For more inform-ation on the Pagan origins of Christianity, see T.W. Doane, Bible Myths and Their Parallels in Other Religions (1970); Sir James G. Frazer, The Golden Bough (1963); Edward Carpenter, Pagan and Christian Creeds (1920); Godfrey Higgins, Anacalypsis. 2 Vols. (1836); Gerald Massey, Ancient Egypt, The Light of tlle World. 2 Vols. (1907); Albert Churchward, The Signs and Symbols of Primordial Man (1913); and G.R.S. Mead, Did Jesus Live 100 BC? (1968)" (see John G. Jackson, Christianity before Christ [1985]).
St. Augustine is born in Carthage, North Africa.   
Julian the Apostate attempts to substitute Mithraism for Christianity.   
Theodosius the Great, a Spaniard, becomes Roman Emperor.   
At Alexandria, Egypt, the statue of Serapis, son of Horus, is destroyed.   
Theodosius the Great becomes emperor of the East and the West. When he dies in 395, Honorius and Arcadius redivide the empire with Stilicho and Alaric as their masters and protectors.   
The Visigoths under Alaric capture Rome.   
The Vandals settle in southern Spain. The Huns settle in Pannonia, the Goths in Dalmatia.   
The Visigoths and Suevi settle in Portugal and northern Spain. The Engles, i.e. English, invade Britain.   
The Vandals under Genseric invade Africa.    
Carthage is overrun by the Vandals.   
Priscus visits Attila the Hun.   
Attila raids Gaul and is defeated by the Franks, Alemanni, and Romans at Troyes.   
Attila the Hun dies.   
The Vandals sack Rome.   
The Ephthalites raid India.   
Odoacer, king of a medley of Teutonic tribes, informs Constantinople that there is no emperor in the West, marking the end of the Western Empire.   
St. Benedict, Italian founder of the Benedictine Order, is born.   
Clovis is the first Merovingian to rule in France.   
The Nestorian Church breaks away from the Orthodox Christian Church.   
Theodoric the Ostrogoth conquers Italy and becomes King of Italy, but is nominally subject to Constantinople. The Goths settle in a garrison of specially confiscated lands.   

Justinian becomes Roman emperor.   
Mihiragula, the Ephthalite Attila of India, is overthrown.   
Justinian closes the schools of Athens, which have flourished nearly a thousand years. Belisariu, Justinian's general, takes Naples.   
Chosroes I begins his Sassanid reign.   
A great plague breaks out in Constantinople.   
St. Benedict dies.   
The Goths are expelled from Italy by Justinian. Cassiodorus founds his monastery.   
Justinian dies. The Lombards conquer most of northern Italy, leaving Ravenna and Rome to Byzantium.   
The Turks break up the Ephthalites in western Turkestan.   
The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is born.   

(See the "Chronology of Islamic Civilization" for an excellent timeline of Arabian history from 4 AD — before the rise of Islam — to 1238.)
Chosroes I dies   

The Lombards are dominant in Italy.   

A plague rages in Rome.   
Pope Gregory the Great (or Gregory I) sees the vision of St. Angelo.   
Chosroes II begins his reign.   
The Songhay Empire is founded in Africa; the career of Antar, African warrior-poet, begins.   
Heraclius, Eastern Roman Emperor, begins his reign.   
Chosroes II holds Egypt, Jerusalem and Damascus, and has armies on the Hellespont.   
The Prophet Muhammad's hegira, i.e. flight, to Medina occurs (pbuh).   

At the Battle of Badr Muhammad comes away victorious.   
Heraclius soundly defeats the Persians at Nineveh.   
The Meccan allies besiege Medina and almost kill Muhammad, the Prophet.   

Tai-Tsung becomes emperor of China.   

Kavadh II murders and succeeds his father, Chosroes II.   
The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) writes letters to all the rulers of the known world.   
The Buddhist Yuan Chwang (Sywan-Dzang) journeys to India.   
The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) returns to Mecca.   
The Prophet Muhammad dies (pbuh); his brother-in-law, Omar, becomes the second caliph, succeeding Abu Bekr in 634.   
Tai-Tsung receives Nestorian missionaries.   
At the Battle of the Yarmuk, a tributary of the River Jordan, Khalid defeats Heraclius.   
The Moslems take Syria.   
Jerusalem surrenders to Omar.   
Othman becomes the third caliph.   
Yuan Chwang returns to Sian-Fu, China, after 16 years in India.   
The Byzantine fleet is defeated by the Moslems.   

Othman is murdered at Medina.   
The Phoenicians circumnavigate the continent of Africa.   
Ali is murdered. Muawija becomes the first of the Omayyad caliphs.   
Caliph Muawija attacks Constantinople by sea.   
Theodore of Tarsus becomes Archbishop of Canterbury.   
The last of the sea attacks by Muawija on Constantinople takes place.   
Pepin of Heristal, Frankish mayor of the palace, reunites Austrasia and Neustria.   
A Saracen army invades Spain from Africa. The Muslims remain there for more than 781 years.   
Suleiman, son and successor of Walid, fails to take Constantinople. The Omayyad line passes its climax.   
Charles Martel, Pepin's son, becomes mayor of the palace.   
The domains of the Caliph Walid I extend from the Pyrenees, which separate France from Spain, to China.   
The Copts revolt in Egypt after Caliph Yazid has all Christian images and pagan statues destroyed. This revolt is repeated in 739.   
The Saracens, i.e. Moors, are defeated by Charles Martel at Battle of Tours, France.   
The Venerable Bede, an English monk and historian, dies.   
Walid II, the Unbelieving, becomes caliph.   
The Omayyads are overthrown. Abu-l-Abbas becomes the first Abbasid caliph. Spain remains Omayyad. The Arab Empire begins to break up.   
During this year, it is reported, the earliest building was constructed at Zimbabwe.   
Pepin the Short, Charles Martel's son and the father of Charlemagne, is crowned King of the Franks.   
St. Boniface, the apostle of Germany, is martyred.  

Please Sign Our Guestbook, If You Haven't Already
HotBot   Search    for   
Updated January 1, 2004

*Throughout this edition the terms African, Overseas African, African American, Afro-American, American African, U.S. African and Blacks have been used to designate Africans born and currently residing in the United States. When "African" is used to refer to those born in Africa, the context of its use will make clear which Africans are being referred to. 

**Copyright and Disclaimer: 

Copyright © 1984 Simon & Schuster and 1998 HieroGraphics Online. All rights reserved. Your History Online is designed expressly for educational purposes only. If any hyperlink or graphic within this webpage has been used inappropriately, please notify the webmaster immediately and it will be removed. HieroGraphics Online does not take responsibility for information which may be deemed controversial in some webpages used as informational links in all segments of Your History Online. Any reproductions or transmissions, electronic or mechan- ic, or use of any original or copyrighted information or images, or parts thereof, in this website for commercial pur- poses without the prior written approval of HieroGraphics Online is strictly prohibited. Permission may be obtained by addressing an e-Mail to the webmaster. 

Forward to Your History Online II
Back to Table of Contents 
Top of Page